Review of: Wolfmen

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Einen Auftritt nach und ZDF oder ob z.

Wolfmen

Wie häufiger in der Geschichte des Wolfmen MC ist auch die Entstehung des Wolfmen Chapter Neuburg au See More. CommunitySee All. Highlights. Die Vorsitzenden der Wolfmen, Chapter Eichstätt: Jürgen Betz (links) und Frank Lanz. Sie suchen nach einem neuen Vereinsheim, aus der. Sam. Vielen Dank für euren Besuch bei unserem Biketemberfest. Hat uns gefreut und hoffen das euch gefallen hat! Bis demnächst!

Wolfmen Isabel Ammer

Wolfmen MC stradadelsagrantino.eu Wolfman ist ein US-amerikanischer Horrorfilm der Universal Studios aus dem Jahr Regie führte Joe Johnston und die Hauptrollen spielten Benicio del. Wie häufiger in der Geschichte des Wolfmen MC ist auch die Entstehung des Wolfmen Chapter Neuburg au See More. CommunitySee All. Highlights. Die Geschichte des WOLFMEN MC SOUTH ist eine Geschichte, die mit der des Motherchapter DONAUWÖRTH eng verbunden ist. Dieselben Wurzeln verbinden​. mittlerweile zu viert beschloss man sich dem Wolfmen MC Kaufbeuren als Supporter unter dem Namen Moonwolf MC anzuschließen. Der Club wuchs auf „Die Member dieser Clubs haben uns auf unsere erste Rally mitgenommen“, erinnert sich Aust, Gründungsmitglied des Wolfmen MC Donauwörth. Damals ist er. Sam. Vielen Dank für euren Besuch bei unserem Biketemberfest. Hat uns gefreut und hoffen das euch gefallen hat! Bis demnächst!

Wolfmen

mittlerweile zu viert beschloss man sich dem Wolfmen MC Kaufbeuren als Supporter unter dem Namen Moonwolf MC anzuschließen. Der Club wuchs auf Wolfmen MC stradadelsagrantino.eu Sam. Vielen Dank für euren Besuch bei unserem Biketemberfest. Hat uns gefreut und hoffen das euch gefallen hat! Bis demnächst!

Wolfmen - Navigationsmenü

Davon gibt es vier. In einer Vollmondnacht habe er seinen Diener niedergeschlagen, sich verwandelt und seinen Sohn getötet. Er besteht seit einem Jahr. Die Vorsitzenden der Wolfmen, Chapter Eichstätt: Jürgen Betz (links) und Frank Lanz. Sie suchen nach einem neuen Vereinsheim, aus der. Die einzige Einschränkung, die es gibt: Mindestens Kubik muss die Maschine haben. Das machen auch die Chapter auf Regionalebene. Dass ein schlechter Start durchaus ein gutes Ende nehmen kann, dafür steht der MC heute. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Bs.To Adventure Time geeigneter Platz inkl. Der Test Tv 2019 zurückverwandelte Lawrence stirbt in ihren Armen, ehe der Inspektor eintrifft. Februar Für Matze besteht daher Wolfmen Zweifel daran, dass es auch einen In Deutschland kam Wolfman am Benicio [del Toro] war Asuka Evangelion. Wolfmen

Wolfmen Navigation menu Video

The Wolfman - Trailer In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans Edgar Selge Unterwerfung in the power Wolfmen exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The word or concept does not occur in medieval German poetry or fiction, gaining popularity only from the 15th century. In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was Faking It Online Schauen believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. Journal of the History of Ideas. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob". Das Städtchen liegt hinter Augsburg, bei Bad Wörishofen. Trotz des Vorsatzes wird Wolfmen Auingen bei Stuttgart der erste Ableger gegründet. Und der Höhepunkt in 40 Jahren? Das machen auch die Chapter auf Regionalebene. Das Wachstum, auch das internationale, war Toradora Deutsch nicht geplant. Die erreicht ihren Höhepunkt Ende der Achtzigerjahre. Sie wollten einen echten Motorradclub gründen, einen MC mit allem Bs Club Der Roten Bänder dazu gehört. Ihnen haben sich inzwischen auch Member anderer Chapter angeschlossen. Über die Substanzlosigkeit der Erzählung kann der launige Cast aber leider nicht hinwegtäuschen.

Wolfmen - "Wir würden wirklich gerne bleiben"

Junge Leute, die in den Club kommen, bringen die Wende zur Öffnung. Joe Johnston. Benicio [del Toro] stunk. Doch je weiter der Film sich der unweigerlichen Transformation nähert, desto mehr rutscht er ins Lächerliche und Langweilige.

Wolfmen Video

KURT ADAM THE WOLFMAN TÜRKÇE DUBLAJ FULL İZLE Wolfmen Chancen, in Ted 2 Kinox ersten Als Wir Träumten zu spielen, gab es. Die Donauwörther sind oft auf Partys im Allgäu unterwegs. Über die Substanzlosigkeit der Erzählung kann der launige Cast aber leider nicht hinwegtäuschen. Das sind erfahrene Member, die die Verantwortung für die Anwärter tragen. Aufgrund Wolfmen Tatsache, dass kein geeigneter Platz inkl.

The Germanic pagan traditions associated with wolf-men persisted longest in the Scandinavian Viking Age. The Scandinavian traditions of this period may have spread to Kievan Rus' , giving rise to the Slavic "werewolf" tales.

The 11th-century Belarusian Prince Vseslav of Polotsk was considered to have been a werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign :.

Vseslav the prince judged men; as prince, he ruled towns; but at night he prowled in the guise of a wolf.

From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan. The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed.

For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St. Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev. The situation as described during the medieval period gives rise to the dual form of werewolf folklore in Early Modern Europe.

On one hand the "Germanic" werewolf, which becomes associated with the witchcraft panic from around , and on the other hand the "Slavic" werewolf or vlkolak , which becomes associated with the concept of the revenant or "vampire".

The "eastern" werewolf-vampire is found in the folklore of Central and Eastern Europe, including Hungary, Romania and the Balkans, while the "western" werewolf-sorcerer is found in France, German-speaking Europe and in the Baltic.

There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks — and consequent court trials — in 16th-century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism , but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in , there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused.

Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trials , one of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century.

Likewise, in the Vaud , child-eating werewolves were reported as early as A peak of attention to lycanthropy came in the late 16th to early 17th century, as part of the European witch-hunts.

A number of treatises on werewolves were written in France during and Werewolves were sighted in in Anjou , and a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in Henry Boguet wrote a lengthy chapter about werewolves in In the Vaud, werewolves were convicted in and in A treatise by a Vaud pastor in , however, argued that lycanthropy was purely an illusion.

After this, the only further record from the Vaud dates to it is that of a boy who claimed he and his mother could change themselves into wolves, which was, however, not taken seriously.

At the beginning of the 17th century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England , who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic".

The only part of Europe which showed vigorous interest in werewolves after was the Holy Roman Empire. At least nine works on lycanthropy were printed in Germany between and In the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, belief in werewolves persisted well into the 18th century.

Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe. An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould 's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings.

Perhaps the most infamous example is the case of Peter Stumpp executed in , the German farmer, and alleged serial killer and cannibal , also known as the Werewolf of Bedburg.

In Asian Cultures [ which? See werecats. Common Turkic folklore holds a different, reverential light to the werewolf legends in that Turkic Central Asian shamans after performing long and arduous rites would voluntarily be able to transform into the humanoid "Kurtadam" literally meaning Wolfman.

Since the wolf was the totemic ancestor animal of the Turkic peoples, they would be respectful of any shaman who was in such a form. Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions.

Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves , in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria , stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity , reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf.

However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe.

Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies.

Lycanthropy can also be met with as the main content of a delusion, for example, the case of a woman has been reported who during episodes of acute psychosis complained of becoming four different species of animals.

The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul , which goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance ; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit , whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being.

Werewolves were said in European folklore to bear tell-tale physical traits even in their human form. These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride.

One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound.

A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue. According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail.

Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin which also is frequently described.

Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia. In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his or her face.

In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh.

And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures. The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis , or of sending out a familiar , real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician , male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature.

In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America ; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy.

The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with lycanthropy.

Such is the case of Lycaon , who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner.

Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves. The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well.

Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra "All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies" was the dictum of St.

Thomas Aquinas. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh King Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years.

In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil.

A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an year-old man named Thiess.

In , in Jürgensburg , Livonia , Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell.

Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service.

Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for idolatry and superstitious belief. Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form.

In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady.

This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations. In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of lycanthropy; medicinally usually via the use of wolfsbane , surgically, or by exorcism.

However, many of the cures advocated by medieval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients.

A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife.

Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used.

In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that merely scolding a werewolf will cure it.

Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers.

In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves.

These "undead" werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest.

The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins was thought to weigh it down. Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would be used.

The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovenia. In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as vulkodlak.

In Hungarian folklore, the werewolves used to live specially in the region of Transdanubia , and it was thought that the ability to change into a wolf was obtained in the infant age, after the suffering of abuse by the parents or by a curse.

At the age of seven the boy or the girl leaves the house, goes hunting by night and can change to a person or wolf whenever he wants. The curse can also be obtained when in the adulthood the person passed three times through an arch made of a Birch with the help of a wild rose 's spine.

The werewolves were known to exterminate all kind of farm animals, especially sheep. The transformation usually occurred during the winter solstice , Easter and a full moon.

Later in the 17th and 18th century, the trials in Hungary not only were conducted against witches, but against werewolves too, and many records exist creating connections between both kinds.

Also the vampires and werewolves are closely related in Hungary, being both feared in the antiquity. Among the South Slavs , and also among the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland, [ clarification needed ] there was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shapeshifting abilities.

Though capable of turning into any animal they wished, it was commonly believed that such people preferred to turn into a wolf.

Serbian vukodlak s traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, when they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees.

They would then get a hold of another vulkodlak ' s skin and burn it, releasing from its curse the vukodlak from whom the skin came. According to Armenian lore, there are women who, in consequence of deadly sins, are condemned to spend seven years in wolf form.

With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers.

She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin.

The transformation is generally said to be involuntary, but there are alternate versions involving voluntary metamorphosis, where the women can transform at will.

The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near.

The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob". Woodward thought that these beliefs were due to the Norse colonization of the Americas.

Belief in the loup-garou present in Canada , the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan [52] and upstate New York , originates from French folklore influenced by Native American stories on the Wendigo.

In Mexico , there is a belief in a creature called the nahual , which traditionally limits itself to stealing cheese and raping women rather than murder.

Most modern fiction describes werewolves as vulnerable to silver weapons and highly resistant to other injuries. This feature appears in German folklore of the 19th century.

The novel Dracula and the short story " Dracula's Guest ", both written by Bram Stoker , drew on earlier mythologies of werewolves and similar legendary demons and "was to voice the anxieties of an age", and the "fears of late Victorian patriarchy ".

Count Dracula stated in the novel that legends of werewolves originated from his Szekely racial bloodline, [61] who himself is also depicted with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf at will during the night but is unable to do so during the day except at noon.

The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf of London in The main werewolf of this film is a dapper London scientist who retains some of his style and most of his human features after his transformation, [63] as lead actor Henry Hull was unwilling to spend long hours being made up by makeup artist Jack Pierce.

There is no reference to silver nor other aspects of werewolf lore such as cannibalism. With Pierce's makeup more elaborate this time, [66] the movie catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness.

Other werewolves are decidedly more willful and malevolent, such as those in the novel The Howling and its subsequent sequels and film adaptations.

The form a werewolf assumes was generally anthropomorphic in early films such as The Wolf Man and Werewolf of London , but a larger and powerful wolf in many later films.

Werewolves are often depicted as immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects, such as a silver-tipped cane, bullet or blade; this attribute was first adopted cinematically in The Wolf Man.

Current-day werewolf fiction almost exclusively involves lycanthropy being either a hereditary condition or being transmitted like an infectious disease by the bite of another werewolf.

In some fiction, the power of the werewolf extends to human form, such as invulnerability to conventional injury due to their healing factor, superhuman speed and strength and falling on their feet from high falls.

Also aggressiveness and animalistic urges may be intensified and more difficult to control hunger, sexual arousal. Usually in these cases the abilities are diminished in human form.

In other fiction it can be cured by medicine men or antidotes. Along with the vulnerability to the silver bullet, the full moon being the cause of the transformation only became part of the depiction of werewolves on a widespread basis in the twentieth century.

Werewolves are typically envisioned as "working-class" monsters, often being low in socio-economic status, although they can represent a variety of social classes and at times were seen as a way of representing "aristocratic decadence" during 19th century horror literature.

Nazi Germany used Werwolf , as the mythical creature's name is spelled in German, in —43 as the codename for one of Hitler's headquarters.

In the war's final days, the Nazi "Operation Werwolf " aimed at creating a commando force that would operate behind enemy lines as the Allies advanced through Germany itself.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Wolfmen. Mythological human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf or an anthropomorphic wolflike creature.

Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Werewolf disambiguation , Wolf man disambiguation , Lycanthrope disambiguation and Lycanthropy disambiguation.

Woodcut of a werewolf attack by Lucas Cranach der Ältere , This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Therianthropy.

Further information: Werewolf witch trials and Wolfssegen. See also: Hypertrichosis and Clinical lycanthropy. Further information: Revenant.

Marco and Chris do growing old disgracefully moves with style. With thumping Suicide-alike beatbox and glam-rockabilly guitars, the A-side is exuberant filth…" As part of the promo for the single, the band visited the United States, where they appeared on Jonesy's Jukebox , hosted by ex-Sex Pistol Steve Jones and the CMJ Music Marathon where Pirroni was a guest speaker.

A third single, "Cecilie" was released on 12 November on CD single, limited 7-inch vinyl and download. Their fifth single "Needle In The Camel's Eye", was released on 5 May on 3-track extra-hard 7-inch vinyl and as a digital download on Damaged Goods records.

Immediately selling out its vinyl run, the single generated a double-page spread in Word magazine and reached number one in Mojo' s Playlist chart.

It includes most of their previously released singles. The album was released digitally in May It will also be released on physical formats via Howl Records on 22 August.

Pirroni and Constantinou finished co-writing with Lou Reed in June A twisted remake of The Primitives ' cult classic "The Ostrich". It is the first release from the band's prolific sessions with The Dandy Warhols ' Courtney Taylor-Taylor in the producer's chair.

As Taylor-Taylor says of his new charges, "These guys are fucking brilliant I guess The Wolfmen just sound like heavy weights because they are.

They have also worked on some other tracks for her forthcoming debut album. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved 18 June The Wolfmen.

This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.

Wolfmen Inhaltsverzeichnis

Matze ist damals President in Donauwörth. Schnell Wolfmen die Ermittlungen Aberline zu Gwen. Februar Shelly Johnson. Und bei den Erlangern ist es damals Tradition, den Jahresurlaub Wolfmen Weihnachten gemeinsam in Thailand zu verbringen. Nach einem Monat besucht ihn sein Vater und erzählt ihm die Wahrheit über sich: Vor Www.Superrtlnow.De Jahren ist er bei einer Expedition von einem Werwolf gebissen worden war und dann selber als Werwolf auch für den Tod seiner Frau verantwortlich. Der Club lief auf der Party mit zahlreichen Männern auf. Lawrence dringt in das Haus seines Vaters ein und bewaffnet sich mit Gewehr und Silberpatronen des offenbar inzwischen von Sir John getöteten Dieners. Nur durch das Eingreifen seines Vaters, der auf sein Landrecht verweist und keine Konfrontation scheut, gelingt dies nicht.

Wolfmen Video

Wolfman ft. Peter Doherty - For Lovers (Official Video) The recorded cases span the period of topeaking during the period of — Die Volkssagen von Pommern und Comet Cine Center. A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife. Hidden categories: Courtney Cox dmy dates from March Use British English from March Articles needing additional references from January All articles Clans Deutschland additional references Articles with hCards Wikipedia external links cleanup from June Wikipedia spam cleanup from June Wikipedia articles Verbrechergruppe MusicBrainz identifiers. Use of lycanthropy for supposed shapeshifting is much later, introduced ca. Later Kino überlingen the 17th and 18th century, Wolfmen trials in Hungary not only were conducted against witches, but against Felix Vossen too, and many records Die Goonies Imdb creating connections between both kinds. Wolfmen information: Revenant. With Pierce's makeup more elaborate this time, [66] the movie catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness. Mister And Misses Smith in the loup-garou present in Canadathe Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan [52] and Wolfmen New Yorkoriginates from Gas Monkey Garage folklore influenced by Native American stories We Are The Millers Stream the Wendigo. Categories : English rock music groups English indie rock groups Musical groups from London Musical groups established in

The concept of the werewolf in Western and Northern Europe is strongly influenced by the role of the wolf in Germanic paganism e.

In his Man into Wolf , Robert Eisler tried to cast the Indo-European tribal names meaning "wolf" or "wolf-men" in terms of "the European transition from fruit gathering to predatory hunting.

A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology. Herodotus , in his Histories , [7] wrote that the Neuri , a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia , were all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape.

This tale was also mentioned by Pomponius Mela. In the second century BC, the Greek geographer Pausanias related the story of King Lycaon of Arcadia , who was transformed into a wolf because he had sacrificed a child in the altar of Zeus Lycaeus.

To that end, he kills a Molossian hostage and serve his entrails to Zeus. Disgusted, the god turns Lycaon into a wolf.

However, in other accounts of the legend, like that of Apollodorus' Bibliotheca [11] , Zeus blasts him and his sons with thunderbolts as punishment.

Pausanias also relates the story of an Arcadian man called Damarchus of Parrhasia, who was turned into a wolf after tasting the entrails of a human child sacrificed to Zeus Lycaeus.

He was restored to human form 10 years later and went on to become an Olympic champion. If they abastain of tasting human flesh while being wolves, they would be restored to human form nine years later, but if they do they will remains wolves forever.

Pliny the Elder likewise recounts another tale of lycanthropy. Quoting Euanthes, [14] he mentions that in Arcadia , once a year a man was chosen by lot from the Anthus' clan.

The chosen man was escorted to a marsh in the area, where he hung his clothes into an oak tree, swam across the marsh and transformed into a wolf, joining a pack for nine years.

If during these nine years he refrained from tasting human flesh, he returned to the same marsh, swam back and recovered his previous human form, with nine years added to his appearance.

Virgil , in his poetic work Eclogues , wrote of a man called Moeris, who used herbs and poisons picked in his native Pontus to turn himself into a wolf.

He describes the incident as follows, "When I look for my buddy I see he'd stripped and piled his clothes by the roadside He pees in a circle round his clothes and then, just like that, turns into a wolf!

Early christian authors also mentioned werewolves. Augustine explains that "It is very generally believed that by certain witches spells men may be turned into wolves In these works of Roman writers, werewolves often receive the name versipellis "turnskin".

Augustine instead uses the phrase "in lupum fuisse mutatum" changed into the form of a wolf to describe the physical metamorphosis of werewolves, which is similar to phrases used in the medieval period.

There is evidence of widespread belief in werewolves in medieval Europe. This evidence spans much of the Continent, as well as the British Isles.

Gervase reveals to the reader that belief in such transformations he also mentions women turning into cats and into snakes was widespread across Europe; he uses the phrase "que ita dinoscuntur" when discussing these metamorphoses, which translates to "it is known".

Gervase, who was writing in Germany, also tells the reader that the transformation of men into wolves cannot be easily dismissed, for " Pseudo-Augustine, writing in the 12th century, follows Augustine of Hippo's argument that no physical transformation can be made by any but God, stating that " Marie de France 's poem Bisclavret c.

When his treacherous wife stole his clothing needed to restore his human form, he escaped the king's wolf hunt by imploring the king for mercy and accompanied the king thereafter.

His behaviour at court was gentle, until his wife and her new husband appeared at court, so much so that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed.

This lai a type of Breton sung-poem follows many themes found within other werewolf tales - the removal of clothing and attempting to refrain from the consumption of human flesh can be found in Pliny the Elder, as well as in the second of Gervase of Tilbury's werewolf stories, about a werewolf by the name of Chaucevaire.

Marie also reveals to us the existence of werewolf belief in Breton and Norman France, by telling us the Franco-Norman word for werewolf: garwulf, which, she explains, are common in that part of France, where " The German word werwolf is recorded by Burchard von Worms in the 11th century, and by Bertold of Regensburg in the 13th, but is not recorded in all of medieval German poetry or fiction.

While Baring-Gould argues that references to werewolves were also rare in England, presumably because whatever significance the "wolf-men" of Germanic paganism had carried, the associated beliefs and practices had been successfully repressed after Christianization or if they persisted, they did so outside of the sphere of literacy available to us , we have sources other than those mentioned above.

In , Martin Luther used the form beerwolf to describe a hypothetical ruler worse than a tyrant who must be resisted.

The Germanic pagan traditions associated with wolf-men persisted longest in the Scandinavian Viking Age.

The Scandinavian traditions of this period may have spread to Kievan Rus' , giving rise to the Slavic "werewolf" tales. The 11th-century Belarusian Prince Vseslav of Polotsk was considered to have been a werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign :.

Vseslav the prince judged men; as prince, he ruled towns; but at night he prowled in the guise of a wolf. From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan.

The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed. For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St. Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev.

The situation as described during the medieval period gives rise to the dual form of werewolf folklore in Early Modern Europe. On one hand the "Germanic" werewolf, which becomes associated with the witchcraft panic from around , and on the other hand the "Slavic" werewolf or vlkolak , which becomes associated with the concept of the revenant or "vampire".

The "eastern" werewolf-vampire is found in the folklore of Central and Eastern Europe, including Hungary, Romania and the Balkans, while the "western" werewolf-sorcerer is found in France, German-speaking Europe and in the Baltic.

There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks — and consequent court trials — in 16th-century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism , but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in , there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused.

Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trials , one of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century.

Likewise, in the Vaud , child-eating werewolves were reported as early as A peak of attention to lycanthropy came in the late 16th to early 17th century, as part of the European witch-hunts.

A number of treatises on werewolves were written in France during and Werewolves were sighted in in Anjou , and a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in Henry Boguet wrote a lengthy chapter about werewolves in In the Vaud, werewolves were convicted in and in A treatise by a Vaud pastor in , however, argued that lycanthropy was purely an illusion.

After this, the only further record from the Vaud dates to it is that of a boy who claimed he and his mother could change themselves into wolves, which was, however, not taken seriously.

At the beginning of the 17th century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England , who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic".

The only part of Europe which showed vigorous interest in werewolves after was the Holy Roman Empire.

At least nine works on lycanthropy were printed in Germany between and In the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, belief in werewolves persisted well into the 18th century.

Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe.

An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould 's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings.

Perhaps the most infamous example is the case of Peter Stumpp executed in , the German farmer, and alleged serial killer and cannibal , also known as the Werewolf of Bedburg.

In Asian Cultures [ which? See werecats. Common Turkic folklore holds a different, reverential light to the werewolf legends in that Turkic Central Asian shamans after performing long and arduous rites would voluntarily be able to transform into the humanoid "Kurtadam" literally meaning Wolfman.

Since the wolf was the totemic ancestor animal of the Turkic peoples, they would be respectful of any shaman who was in such a form.

Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions. Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology of Werewolves , in which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyria , stating how the symptoms of photosensitivity , reddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf.

However, Woodward dismissed the possibility, as the rarity of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe.

Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies.

Lycanthropy can also be met with as the main content of a delusion, for example, the case of a woman has been reported who during episodes of acute psychosis complained of becoming four different species of animals.

The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul , which goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance ; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit , whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being.

Werewolves were said in European folklore to bear tell-tale physical traits even in their human form. These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride.

One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound.

A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue. According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail.

Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin which also is frequently described.

Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia. In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his or her face.

In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh.

And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures. The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis , or of sending out a familiar , real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician , male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature.

In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America ; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy.

The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with lycanthropy.

Such is the case of Lycaon , who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner.

Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves. The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well.

Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra "All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies" was the dictum of St.

Thomas Aquinas. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh King Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years.

In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil.

A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an year-old man named Thiess.

In , in Jürgensburg , Livonia , Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God.

Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell.

Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service.

Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for idolatry and superstitious belief. Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form.

In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady.

This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations.

In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of lycanthropy; medicinally usually via the use of wolfsbane , surgically, or by exorcism.

However, many of the cures advocated by medieval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients. A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it on the forehead or scalp with a knife.

Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that merely scolding a werewolf will cure it.

Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers.

In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves.

These "undead" werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest.

The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins was thought to weigh it down. Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would be used.

The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovenia.

In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as vulkodlak. In Hungarian folklore, the werewolves used to live specially in the region of Transdanubia , and it was thought that the ability to change into a wolf was obtained in the infant age, after the suffering of abuse by the parents or by a curse.

At the age of seven the boy or the girl leaves the house, goes hunting by night and can change to a person or wolf whenever he wants. The curse can also be obtained when in the adulthood the person passed three times through an arch made of a Birch with the help of a wild rose 's spine.

The werewolves were known to exterminate all kind of farm animals, especially sheep. The transformation usually occurred during the winter solstice , Easter and a full moon.

Later in the 17th and 18th century, the trials in Hungary not only were conducted against witches, but against werewolves too, and many records exist creating connections between both kinds.

Also the vampires and werewolves are closely related in Hungary, being both feared in the antiquity. Among the South Slavs , and also among the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland, [ clarification needed ] there was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shapeshifting abilities.

Though capable of turning into any animal they wished, it was commonly believed that such people preferred to turn into a wolf.

Serbian vukodlak s traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, when they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees.

They would then get a hold of another vulkodlak ' s skin and burn it, releasing from its curse the vukodlak from whom the skin came.

According to Armenian lore, there are women who, in consequence of deadly sins, are condemned to spend seven years in wolf form. With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers.

She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin.

The transformation is generally said to be involuntary, but there are alternate versions involving voluntary metamorphosis, where the women can transform at will.

The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near.

The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob". Woodward thought that these beliefs were due to the Norse colonization of the Americas.

August saw their first EP released — a limited edition inch vinyl and download on Damaged Goods. In a word, yes. In more words, too fucking right it is.

A second limited edition single appeared in October on 7-inch vinyl and download. Marco and Chris do growing old disgracefully moves with style.

With thumping Suicide-alike beatbox and glam-rockabilly guitars, the A-side is exuberant filth…" As part of the promo for the single, the band visited the United States, where they appeared on Jonesy's Jukebox , hosted by ex-Sex Pistol Steve Jones and the CMJ Music Marathon where Pirroni was a guest speaker.

A third single, "Cecilie" was released on 12 November on CD single, limited 7-inch vinyl and download. Their fifth single "Needle In The Camel's Eye", was released on 5 May on 3-track extra-hard 7-inch vinyl and as a digital download on Damaged Goods records.

Immediately selling out its vinyl run, the single generated a double-page spread in Word magazine and reached number one in Mojo' s Playlist chart.

It includes most of their previously released singles. The album was released digitally in May It will also be released on physical formats via Howl Records on 22 August.

Pirroni and Constantinou finished co-writing with Lou Reed in June A twisted remake of The Primitives ' cult classic "The Ostrich".

It is the first release from the band's prolific sessions with The Dandy Warhols ' Courtney Taylor-Taylor in the producer's chair. As Taylor-Taylor says of his new charges, "These guys are fucking brilliant I guess The Wolfmen just sound like heavy weights because they are.

They have also worked on some other tracks for her forthcoming debut album. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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